“There is nothing worse than doing well that which should not be done at all.” Peter Drucker At the heart of creating value from our investments in digital transformation lies what we refer to as P3M. In most cases, we describe this as project, programme, and portfolio management; unfortunately, that's getting it backwards. To be fair, the Project Management Institute (PMI) gets it right. They have it as portfolio, programme, and project management. However, regardless of the order, all 3 are all too often seen as being in the project space. We need to look at P3M in the correct order, namely, portfolio, programme, and project management, and we also need to look outside of the project space. Why do I say that? Almost 25 years ago, in The Information Paradox, I introduced a set of misleadingly simple questions - the Four “Ares”:
I always open my discussions with boards and executives with these four questions. They understand them. I remember in one case, shortly after introducing these questions, an executive – the CFO - went down the list one by one. Yes, he said, I think we’re doing the right things. Yes, we’re doing them the right way, and, yes, we’re getting them done well. Then, he got to question 4, are we getting the benefits? He paused for a while, then said, I think I’d better go back to question 1 - are we doing the right things? He got it! For the board and executive, the two most important questions in the Four “Ares” are the first and last questions. They are accountable for ensuring and assuring that their organizations are doing the right things and identifying key metrics for their investments, to determine whether they will realise expected benefits and value. They have effective oversight and the power to take action when things are not going as planned. This is what portfolio management is about. Without effective portfolio management, there is no context for programme or project management - they operate in a vacuum and are the primary reason for significant value leakage today in projects and programmes. So, what is portfolio management? Portfolio management is basically about the objective selection of investments to maximize business value, based on both attractiveness and achievability with proactive monitoring and adjustment of the portfolio of investments based on performance and business context.
Portfolio management involves:
Portfolio management refocuses decision makers on the key issue of managing risk/reward relationships and offers them a rational approach to programme selection, similar to financial portfolio management. Adopting this approach involves taking the five practical steps described below:
As illustrated below, different investments need to be handled in different ways, depending upon the degree of freedom in allocating funds, and the complexity of the investment. A sound system for categorizing programmes allows management focus on the key business decisions they need to make, in particular those involving significant business change.
Where there is a choice of where to allocate funds, and where the realization of value is complex, programmes merit detailed assessment in the competition for scarce resources. Business cases need to focus on much more than financial criteria. Consideration needs to be given to broader investment criteria, including the alignment of programmes with business strategies, and the level of risk around delivery of benefits and interdependencies within and between programmes. A key tool for doing this is benefits/value mapping. The figure below shows a useful tool that I had a hand in developing when working with Fujitsu Consulting. Nowadays, there are several similar tools available in the marketplace.
The value of benefits/value mapping is not so much in the maps that are created, although that is certainly useful, but in developing the maps. We derive the primary value of the map from extensive interviews and workshops held with stakeholders. Beyond the interviews, you need the sponsor and key stakeholders involved in the development of the maps. Developing a map with key stakeholders facilitates discussion, builds consensus, and gains their commitment. It develops a shared understanding of the expected outcomes – which often change because of the mapping process. It identifies the full scope of change required to achieve those outcomes, along with the contribution of the initiatives, and the metrics required to measure that contribution. Its power is in making explicit what is implicit and surfacing assumptions. In doing so, it facilitates communication and enables better decision-making. It also helps solidify the “team” and clarifies ownership and accountability. Benefits/value mapping is about much more than an abstract map - once used, then forgotten! It is a key part of developing the business case, and when completed, it can become a living model of the benefits/value realization process. It is living in the sense that, just as in the business cases discussed next, it can and should be continually revised to monitor and communicate progress, reflect any changes, and identify actions that might be required to ensure that value is created and sustained. Business cases all too often are seen as a bureaucratic hurdle to be overcome, then forgotten. They are the foundation that sows the seeds for success or failure of any investment. Business cases should:
Manage risk systematically both by diversifying the portfolio across varied investment programmes and by improving the risk profile of each programme. Risk needs to be managed relative to potential returns and to the ability to diversify risk across a variety of investments, as it is in the world of finance. There is room for higher-risk investments, as long as the potential reward is high enough.
Manage programme interdependencies with a focus on the four central issues of sequencing, overlaps, resource competition and change bottlenecks. The aim is to turn potential conflicts into mutual reinforcement so that programmes leverage each other and to cut down on pointless inter-programme competition for resources
Adjust portfolio composition as programmes are completed, new ones are selected, and priorities change to reflect shifts in the business environment. This process must be continuous, not simply part of the annual budget ritual.
By taking these five steps, organizations can ensure that portfolio management becomes an integral part of the ongoing, proactive benefits realization process to generate the most value for their investments. I’ve mentioned tools several times in this article. When I first did this work, more than a few decades ago, I had to use tools such as Lotus 123 to create spreadsheets capturing all the information required to support the initial and ongoing decision making required. (Lotus 123 was the first innovative spreadsheet for the PC). Now, there are many tools, including those provided by Amplify, that simplify the process. However, portfolio management cannot be considered as a purely analytical process. It requires the delicate balancing of many factors. While a tool can serve as a powerful aid to informed business decision making, it cannot be a substitute for business judgement. Whilst portfolio management can and should apply to programmes and projects, it is should not be seen as just another project management tool. Portfolio management provides the board and executive team with vital decision support, and the bridge to creating and sustaining value on behalf of a broad range of stakeholders. Without it, they are essentially flying blind.
John Thorp is an internationally recognised thought leader in value and benefits management with over 50 years’ experience in the information management field. A frequent speaker and author of The Information Paradox, his passion revolves around helping individuals, organisations and society realise value from information technology enabled change. He is a Fujitsu Consulting Fellow and a Fellow of the Innovation Value Institute and the Institute for Digital Transformation. John Thorp is a member of Association for Project Management (APM) Benefits and Value SIG This article is based on a recent webinar titled ‘Changing culture to maximise value’